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Mol Genet Metab. 2006 May;88(1):58-65. Epub 2006 Jan 20.

CYP21A2 mutations in Portuguese patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: identification of two novel mutations and characterization of four different partial gene conversions.

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Centro de Genética Humana, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisboa, Portugal.


More than 90% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In this study, the CYP21 gene was genotyped in 56 Portuguese unrelated patients with clinical symptoms of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a total of 112 independent alleles. CYP21A2 mutations were identified in 99.1% of the alleles. The most common point mutation was 1688G>T (25.9%). A previously unreported partial gene conversion, extending from exon 1 to 7, was found in 16.1% of the alleles, in most cases associated to the mutation 1688G>T in the other chromosome, and in patients with nonclassical CAH. Other three distinct partial gene conversions were also identified, with lower frequencies: one extends from exon 1 to 3 and the others from exons 3 to 7 and 3 to 8. Two novel mutations were identified in two salt-wasting patients: a putative splicing mutation, IVS2+5G>A, and the transition 2557C>T, that gives rise to the nonsense mutation R445X. Seven point mutations and a partial gene conversion were responsible for 88 of the studied disease causing alleles, and the overall concordance between genotype and phenotype was 92.9%. With this study the molecular basis of CAH was characterized, for the first time, in Portuguese patients, providing useful results for clinicians in terms of prediction of disease severity, genetic and prenatal counseling.

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