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Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Dec;64(1-3):21-34. Epub 2006 Jan 20.

Cultural differences in medical communication: a review of the literature.

Author information

1
Interdisciplinary Social Science Department, Research Institute for Psychology and Health, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. b.c.schouten@fss.uu.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Culture and ethnicity have often been cited as barriers in establishing an effective and satisfying doctor-patient relationship. The aim of this paper is to gain more insight in intercultural medical communication difficulties by reviewing observational studies on intercultural doctor-patient communication. In addition, a research model for studying this topic in future research is proposed.

METHODS:

A literature review using online databases (Pubmed, Psychlit) was performed.

RESULTS:

Findings reveal major differences in doctor-patient communication as a consequence of patients' ethnic backgrounds. Doctors behave less affectively when interacting with ethnic minority patients compared to White patients. Ethnic minority patients themselves are also less verbally expressive; they seem to be less assertive and affective during the medical encounter than White patients.

CONCLUSION:

Most reviewed studies did not relate communication behaviour to possible antecedent culture-related variables, nor did they assess the effect of cultural variations in doctor-patient communication on outcomes, leaving us in the dark about reasons for and consequences of differences in intercultural medical communication. Five key predictors of culture-related communication problems are identified in the literature: (1) cultural differences in explanatory models of health and illness; (2) differences in cultural values; (3) cultural differences in patients' preferences for doctor-patient relationships; (4) racism/perceptual biases; (5) linguistic barriers. It is concluded that by incorporating these variables into a research model future research on this topic can be enhanced, both from a theoretical and a methodological perspective.

PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:

Using a cultural sensitive approach in medical communication is recommended.

PMID:
16427760
DOI:
10.1016/j.pec.2005.11.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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