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Lupus. 2005;14(12):938-46.

Male systemic lupus erythematosus in a Latin-American inception cohort of 1214 patients.

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Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos General San Martín, La Plata, Argentina.


The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of the male gender in the clinical presentation and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus in a prospective inception cohort of Latin-American patients. Of the 1214 SLE patients included in the GLADEL cohort, 123 were male. Demographic characteristics as well as clinical manifestations, laboratory profile, activity and damage scores were evaluated at onset and during the course of the disease and compared with female patients. The median age at onset of the male patients was 27 and that at diagnosis 29.2 years. Delay to diagnosis was shorter in males (134 versus 185 days, P = 0.01). At onset, men more frequently showed fever (42.3 versus 27.0%, P = 0.001) and weight loss (23.6 versus 11.8%, P = 0.001). During disease course the incident of symptoms was: fever, 67.8 versus 55.6%, P = 0.012; weight loss, 47.2 versus 24.3%, P = 0.001; arterial hypertension, 37.4 versus 25.8%, P = 0.007; renal disease (persistent proteinuria and/or cellular casts), 58.5 versus 44.6%, P = 0.004); and hemolytic anemia, 19.5 versus 10.9%, P = 0.008. The laboratory results showed that: men more frequently had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (68.2 versus 49%, P = 0.02) and low C3 (61.3 versus 48.1%, P = 0.03); 5/123 men died (4%) compared with 29/1091 women (2.7%). In conclusion, 10% of GLADEL's cohort patients were male. They showed a distinctive profile with shorter delay to diagnosis, higher incidence of fever, weight loss, arterial hypertension, renal disease, hemolytic anemia, IgG anticardiolipin antibodies and low C3. Although not statistically significant, mortality was higher in men.

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