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Nat Immunol. 2006 Feb;7(2):131-7.

Innate immune recognition of viral infection.

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Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Induction of the antiviral innate immune response depends on recognition of viral components by host pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the Toll-like receptor family have emerged as key sensors that recognize viral components such as nucleic acids. Toll-like receptor signaling results in the production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines and leads to dendritic cell maturation and establishment of antiviral immunity. Cells also express cytoplasmic RNA helicases that function as alternative pattern-recognition receptors through recognition of double-stranded RNA produced during virus replication. These two classes of pattern-recognition receptor molecules are expressed in different intracellular compartments and induce type I interferon responses via distinct signaling pathways.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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