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Neuron. 2006 Jan 19;49(2):243-56.

Frequency-dependent kinetics and prevalence of kiss-and-run and reuse at hippocampal synapses studied with novel quenching methods.

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Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


The kinetics of exo-endocytotic recycling could restrict information transfer at central synapses if neurotransmission were entirely reliant on classical full-collapse fusion. Nonclassical fusion retrieval by kiss-and-run would be kinetically advantageous but remains controversial. We used a hydrophilic quencher, bromophenol blue (BPB), to help detect nonclassical events. Upon stimulation, extracellular BPB entered synaptic vesicles and quenched FM1-43 fluorescence, indicating retention of FM dye beyond first fusion. BPB also quenched fluorescence of VAMP (synaptobrevin-2)-EGFP, thus indicating the timing of first fusion of vesicles in the total recycling pool. Comparison with FM dye destaining revealed that kiss-and-run strongly prevailed over full-collapse fusion at low frequency, giving way to a near-even balance at high frequency. Quickening of kiss-and-run vesicle reuse was also observed at higher frequency in the average single vesicle fluorescence response. Kiss-and-run and reuse could enable hippocampal nerve terminals to conserve scarce vesicular resources when responding to widely varying input patterns.

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