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J Pediatr. 2006 Jan;148(1):128-31.

Oral urea for the treatment of chronic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis in children.

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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, USA.


We report the successful use of oral urea in the management of children with chronic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD). We performed a retrospective review of four children with chronic SIAD. After initial attempts at management with fluid restriction, each was started on a 30% to 50% oral urea solution, and the dose was titrated until normal serum sodium was achieved. Fluid intake was liberalized after serum sodium normalization. All four children normalized their serum sodium. No side effects or toxicities were experienced. Oral urea is a safe, effective treatment for chronic SIAD in children.

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