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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1992 Jul;22(4):985-1015.

Congenital spinal malformations.

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Department of Surgery, University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis.


When presented with an animal that has a congenital spinal malformation, the veterinarian needs to consider the clinical significance of the malformation, the possible presence of other anomalies--spinal and nonspinal, the heritability of the malformation, and potentially innovative treatment options. This article includes explanations of the conditions and information regarding diagnosis and treatment of hemivertebrae and block vertebrae, malformations at the cranial-vertebral junction, osteocartilaginous exostoses, spinal bifida, and spinal stenosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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