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Cell. 2006 Jan 13;124(1):61-73.

The crystal structure of yeast protein disulfide isomerase suggests cooperativity between its active sites.

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Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Erratum in

  • Cell. 2006 Mar 10;124(5):1085-8.


Protein disulfide isomerase plays a key role in catalyzing the folding of secretory proteins. It features two catalytically inactive thioredoxin domains inserted between two catalytically active thioredoxin domains and an acidic C-terminal tail. The crystal structure of yeast PDI reveals that the four thioredoxin domains are arranged in the shape of a twisted "U" with the active sites facing each other across the long sides of the "U." The inside surface of the "U" is enriched in hydrophobic residues, thereby facilitating interactions with misfolded proteins. The domain arrangement, active site location, and surface features strikingly resemble the Escherichia coli DsbC and DsbG protein disulfide isomerases. Biochemical studies demonstrate that all domains of PDI, including the C-terminal tail, are required for full catalytic activity. The structure defines a framework for rationalizing the differences between the two active sites and their respective roles in catalyzing the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds.

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