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Cell Death Differ. 2006 May;13(5):816-25.

TLR signaling.

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Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family plays an instructive role in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, as well as the subsequent induction of adaptive immune responses. TLRs recognize specific molecular patterns found in a broad range of microbial pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, triggering inflammatory and antiviral responses and dendritic cell maturation, which result in the eradication of invading pathogens. Individual TLRs interact with different combinations of adapter proteins and activate various transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activating protein-1 and interferon regulatory factors, driving a specific immune response. This review outlines the recent advances in our understanding of TLR-signaling pathways and their roles in immune responses. Further, we also discuss a new concept of TLR-independent mechanisms for recognition of microbial pathogens.

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