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Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Feb;134(1):187-98.

Molecular epidemiology and diversity of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in pigs using phenotypic and genotypic approaches.

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Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, NC 27606, USA.


For epidemiological investigations of the most common and non-host-adapted Salmonella serotypes, such as Typhimurium, highly discriminatory approaches are essential. In the present study, we evaluated three genotyping methods; amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and repetitive palindromic extragenic-PCR (Rep-PCR) using 40 isolates. AFLP showed the highest discriminatory index (0.939), resolution and throughput. To determine clonality of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and epidemiological relatedness in different commercial pig production units, we employed AFLP in combination with antimicrobial resistance pattern and phage typing. Salmonella serovar Typhimurium isolates (n=196) obtained from a longitudinal study of 18 pig farms over a 3-year period were studied. Using this approach, 16 distinct clonal types were identified. We found two common multidrug- resistant patterns including AmCmStSuTe and AmKmStSuTe. Two commonly multidrug- resistant phage types that are of known public health importance, DT104 and DT193, were also common. AFLP differentiated distinct clones within DT104, a phage type previously reported to be clonal. Fourteen of the clonal types were unique to one of the two production systems, showing diversity between independent commercial pig production systems located in the same geographical area. Clonal types obtained from nursery farms and corresponding finishing units were, however, similar.

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