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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 17;103(3):553-7. Epub 2006 Jan 5.

Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals.

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  • 1Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, University of Oxford, 6 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QJ, United Kingdom.


The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G(1) of Vindija Cave in Croatia to approximately 28,000 and approximately 29,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G(1) Neandertal fossils are redated to approximately 32,000-33,000 (14)C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

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