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FEBS J. 2006 Jan;273(2):336-46.

The role of glucose 6-phosphate in mediating the effects of glucokinase overexpression on hepatic glucose metabolism.

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1
School of Clinical Medical Sciences-Diabetes, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Abstract

Pharmacological activation or overexpression of glucokinase in hepatocytes stimulates glucose phosphorylation, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. We used an inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) hydrolysis, namely the chlorogenic derivative, 1-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-cyclopropylmethoxy]-3, 4-dihydroxy-5-(3-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl-3-phenyl-acryloyloxy)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (also known as S4048), to determine the contribution of Glc6P concentration, as distinct from glucokinase protein or activity, to the control of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis by glucokinase overexpression. The validity of S4048 for testing the role of Glc6P was supported by its lack of effect on glucokinase binding and its nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution. The stimulation of glycolysis by glucokinase overexpression correlated strongly with glucose phosphorylation, whereas glycogen synthesis correlated strongly with Glc6P concentration. Metabolic control analysis was used to determine the sensitivity of glycogenic flux to glucokinase or Glc6P at varying glucose concentrations (5-20 mm). The concentration control coefficient of glucokinase on Glc6P (1.4-1.7) was relatively independent of glucose concentration, whereas the flux control coefficients of Glc6P (2.4-1.0) and glucokinase (3.7-1.8) on glycogen synthesis decreased with glucose concentration. The high sensitivity of glycogenic flux to Glc6P at low glucose concentration is consistent with covalent modification by Glc6P of both phosphorylase and glycogen synthase. The high control strength of glucokinase on glycogenic flux is explained by its concentration control coefficient on Glc6P and the high control strength of Glc6P on glycogen synthesis. It is suggested that the regulatory strength of pharmacological glucokinase activators on glycogen metabolism can be predicted from their effect on the Glc6P content.

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