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Circulation. 2006 Jan 17;113(2):266-72. Epub 2006 Jan 9.

Sustained reverse left ventricular structural remodeling with cardiac resynchronization at one year is a function of etiology: quantitative Doppler echocardiographic evidence from the Multicenter InSync Randomized Clinical Evaluation (MIRACLE).

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  • 1University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.



Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective therapy for patients with moderate to severe heart failure and prolonged QRS duration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and symptomatic benefit from CRT were sustained at 12 months, and if so, in what proportion of patients this occurred.


Serial Doppler echocardiograms were obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months after CRT in 228 patients enrolled in the Multicenter InSync Randomized Clinical Evaluation (MIRACLE) trial. Measurements were made of LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction, LV mass, severity of mitral regurgitation (MR), peak transmitral velocities during early (E wave) and late (A wave) diastolic filling, and myocardial performance index. At both 6 and 12 months, respectively, CRT was associated with reduced LV EDV (P<0.0001 and P=0.007) and LV ESV (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001), improved ejection fraction (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001), regression of LV mass (P=0.012 and P<0.0001), and reduced MR (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001). LV filling time, transmitral E/A ratio, and myocardial performance index all improved at 12 months compared with baseline (P<0.001, P=0.031, and P<0.0001). Reverse LV remodeling with CRT occurred in more patients at 6 than at 12 months (74% versus 60%, respectively; P<0.05) and was greater in patients with a nonischemic than an ischemic etiology.


Reverse LV remodeling and symptom benefit with CRT are sustained at 12 months in patients with New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure but occur to a lesser degree in patients with an ischemic versus a nonischemic etiology, most likely owing to the inexorable progression of ischemic disease.

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