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Pharmazie. 2005 Dec;60(12):922-7.

Co-treatment with grapefruit juice inhibits while chronic administration activates intestinal P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux.

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Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector 67, Phase 10, S.A.S Nagar - 160 062, Punjab, India.


P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux is recognized as a significant biochemical barrier affecting oral absorption for a number of drugs. Various conflicting reports have been published regarding the effects of grapefruit juice (GFJ) on P-gp-mediated drug efflux, in which GFJ has been shown both to inhibit and activate it. Hence, the present study adopted a two-way approach, involving both co-treatment and chronic administration. Bi-directional transport of paclitaxel (PCL) was carried out in the absence and presence of GFJ extract, in rat everted ileum sac. Further, the effect of chronic administration of GFJ to rats was characterized by permeability studies with indinavir (INDI). Co-treatment of GFJ extract at 100% concentration reduced the asymmetric transport of PCL (efflux ratio = 20.8) by increasing absorptive (A --> B) transport by 921% and reducing secretory (B --> A) transport by 41%. Further, GFJ showed a concentration dependent effect on PCL permeability. Imipramine, a passive permeability marker with absorptive permeability of 15.33 +/- 4.26 x 10(-6) cm/s showed no asymmetric transport and also no significant (P < 0.05) change in permeability in the presence of GFJ. Chronic administration of GFJ resulted in a significant decrease in absorptive transport of indinavir, which was even greater than that produced by rifampicin pretreatment. No change in permeability of propranolol, a passive permeability marker, was observed. Further, the decrease in absorptive transport of INDI was reversed by the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. In conclusion, GFJ extract inhibited P-gp-mediated efflux in co-treatment, whereas chronic administration led to increased levels of P-gp expression, thus having a profound effect on intestinal absorption and GFJ-drug interactions in vivo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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