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J Proteome Res. 2006 Jan;5(1):183-91.

Systematic evaluation of sample preparation methods for gel-based human urinary proteomics: quantity, quality, and variability.

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Siriraj Proteomics Facility, Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.


We performed systematic evaluation of 38 protocols to concentrate normal human urinary proteins prior to 2D-PAGE analysis. Recovery yield and pattern of resolved protein spots were compared among different methods and intra-/inter-individual variabilities were examined. Precipitation with 90% ethanol provided the greatest protein recovery yield (92.99%), whereas precipitation with 10% acetic acid had the least protein recovery (1.91%). In most of precipitation protocols, the higher percentage of applied organic compounds provided the greater recovery yield. With a fixed concentration at 75%, the urine precipitated with acetonitrile had the greatest number of protein spots visualized in 2D gel, whereas the acetic-precipitated sample had the smallest number of spots. For the intra-individual variability, the first morning urine had the greatest amount of total protein but provided the smallest number of protein spots visualized. Excessive water drinking, not caffeine ingestion, caused alterations in the urinary proteome profile with newly presenting spots and also proteins with decreased excretion levels. As expected, there was a considerable degree of inter-individual variability. Coefficients of variation for albumin and transferrin expression were greatest by inter-individual variables. Male urine had greater amount of total protein but provided smaller number of protein spots compared to female urine. These data offer a wealth of useful information for designing a high-quality, large-scale human urine proteome project.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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