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J Nurs Scholarsh. 2005;37(4):336-42.

Conceptual model of health-related quality of life.

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University of Illinois, College of Nursing, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.



To revise the Wilson and Cleary model of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with suggestions for applying each of the components, and to facilitate the use of HRQoL in nursing and health care.


HRQoL, based on relevant literature over the past 20 years.


The original model was revised in three substantive ways: (a) indicating that biological function is influenced by characteristics of both individuals and environments; (b) deleting nonmedical factors; and (c) deleting the labels on the arrows that tend to restrict characterization of the relationships.


Theoretical background is provided for each of the major components of the model, and examples of instruments to measure them, were added.


In quality-of-life research, the current challenge is to devise models to clarify the elements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the causal relationships among them. This revision of Wilson and Cleary's model includes a taxonomy of the variables that often have been used to measure HRQoL. This revision should be useful in research and clinical practice.

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[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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