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Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jan;38(1):21-6.

Glenohumeral range of motion and stiffness in professional baseball pitchers.

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Sports Medicine Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8205, USA.



This study was conducted to perform kinematic measures in a group of asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers to determine side-to-side differences in passive glenohumeral range of motion (ROM) and stiffness. We hypothesized that the throwing shoulder in asymptomatic pitchers would display greater passive glenohumeral stiffness than the contralateral nonthrowing shoulder.


Thirty-four professional baseball pitchers had bilateral assessments for passive glenohumeral ROM and stiffness during a single test session. ROM and stiffness measures were obtained objectively using standard goniometry and instrumented stress arthrometry, respectively.


The throwing shoulder had significantly less (-8.5 degrees) internal rotation and significantly more external rotation (5.1 degrees) than the nonthrowing shoulder (P < 0.01). Passive joint stiffness was not significantly different between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulder, and anterior joint stiffness was significantly greater than posterior joint stiffness for both shoulders (P < 0.05).


The repetitive stress of long-term throwing creates altered glenohumeral rotational patterns in the throwing shoulder of the professional baseball pitcher without compromising the joint's passive restraining quality.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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