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Indian J Med Res. 2005 Oct;122(4):297-304.

Modification of medical outcome study (MOS) instrument for quality of life assessment & its validation in HIV infected individuals in India.

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Department of Epidemiology, National AIDS Research Institute (ICMR), Pune, India.



Several instruments have been developed specifically to assess the quality of life (QOL) in HIV infected individuals. No information is available in this aspect from India. The present study was thus carried out to assess the QOL among HIV infected persons, to study their relationship with socio-demographic characteristics and stages of disease progression, and to examine change in QOL over time.


One time assessment of QOL on 100 and repeat evaluation on 20 HIV infected persons enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal prospective study of clinical progression was done. Medical Outcome Study (MOS-QOL) core instrument was modified to suit the Indian cultural settings and interview-administered.


The overall scale had Cronbach alpha 0.75. Instrument showed significant positive inter-domain correlations and linear association between QOL scores and CD4 counts. QOL was markedly affected in the domains of physical health, work and earnings, routine activities, and appetite and food intake. Women had significantly lower QOL scores despite having less advanced disease. The QOL scores decreased with drop in CD4 counts mainly in the physical health domains. Generally, the QOL scores were high in the follow up visit compared to baseline.


The modified MOS scale with Cronbach alpha of more than 0.7 and linear relationship between CD4 counts and the QOL scores indicated that the instrument was reliable and valid for evaluation of QOL in HIV infected persons in India. Comparative lower scores in the domains of physical health indicate medical intervention to greatly benefit the HIV infected persons. Longitudinal studies need to be undertaken to assess the impact of introduction of anti retroviral therapy (ART) through the national programme on disease progression and changes in QOL.

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