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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Dec;89(6):899-913.

Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309, USA.


In seems there are two dimensions that underlie most judgments of traits, people, groups, and cultures. Although the definitions vary, the first makes reference to attributes such as competence, agency, and individualism, and the second to warmth, communality, and collectivism. But the relationship between the two dimensions seems unclear. In trait and person judgment, they are often positively related; in group and cultural stereotypes, they are often negatively related. The authors report 4 studies that examine the dynamic relationship between these two dimensions, experimentally manipulating the location of a target of judgment on one and examining the consequences for the other. In general, the authors' data suggest a negative dynamic relationship between the two, moderated by factors the impact of which they explore.

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