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J Med Chem. 2006 Jan 12;49(1):366-72.

Design, synthesis, and action of oxotremorine-related hybrid-type allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

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Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Viale Abruzzi 42, 20131 Milano, Italy.


A novel series of muscarinic receptor ligands of the hexamethonio-type was prepared which contained, on one side, the phthalimidopropane or 1,8-naphthalimido-2,2-dimethylpropane moiety typical for subtype selective allosteric antagonists and, on the other, the acetylenic fragment typical for the nonselective orthosteric muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, oxotremorine-M, and related muscarinic agonists. Binding experiments in M(2) receptors using [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine as an orthosteric probe proved an allosteric action of both groups of hybrids, 7a-10a and 8b-10b. The difference in activity between a-group and b-group hybrids corresponded with the activity difference between the allosteric parent compounds. In M(1)-M(3) muscarinic isolated organ preparations, most of the hybrids behaved as subtype selective antagonists. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays using human M(2) receptors overexpressed in CHO cells revealed that a weak intrinsic efficacy was preserved in 8b-10b. Thus, attaching muscarinic allosteric antagonist moieties to orthosteric muscarinic agonists may lead to hybrid compounds in which functions of both components are mixed.

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