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J Chem Phys. 2005 Sep 22;123(12):124107.

Assessment of Gaussian-3 and density-functional theories on the G3/05 test set of experimental energies.

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Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA.


The G3/99 test set [L. A. Curtiss, K. Raghavachari, P. C. Redfern, and J. A. Pople, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7374 (2000)] of thermochemical data for validation of quantum chemical methods is expanded to include 78 additional energies including 14 enthalpies of formation of the first- and second-row nonhydrogen molecules, 58 energies of molecules containing the third-row elements K, Ca, and Ga-Kr, and 6 hydrogen-bonded complexes. The criterion used for selecting the additional systems is the same as before, i.e., experimental uncertainties less than +/- 1 kcal/mol. This new set, referred to as the G3/05 test set, has a total of 454 energies. The G3 and G3X theories are found to have mean absolute deviations of 1.13 and 1.01 kcal/mol, respectively, when applied to the G3/05 test set. Both methods have larger errors for the nonhydrogen subset of 79 species for which they have mean absolute deviations of 2.10 and 1.64 kcal/mol, respectively. On all of the other types of energies the G3 and G3X methods are very reliable. The G3/05 test set is also used to assess density-functional methods including a series of new functionals. The most accurate functional for the G3/05 test set is B98 with a mean absolute deviation of 3.33 kcal/mol, compared to 4.14 kcal/mol for B3LYP. The latter functional has especially large errors for larger molecules with a mean absolute deviation of 9 kcal/mol for molecules having 28 or more valence electrons. For smaller molecules B3LYP does as well or better than B98 and the other functionals. It is found that many of the density-functional methods have significant errors for the larger molecules in the test set.

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