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Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006 Apr;50(3):411-20. Epub 2006 Jan 2.

Pharmacokinetics and acute lethality of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to juvenile mallard and northern bobwhite.

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ENTRIX, Inc, 4295 Okemos Rd., Okemos, Michigan, 48864, USA.


Ten-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in their diet for 5 days. The birds were then observed for 3 days while being given uncontaminated feed, and half of the birds were sacrificed on Day 8 of the trial. The remaining birds were maintained for an additional two weeks prior to being euthanized on Day 22 of the trial. Birds were assessed for growth, rate of feed consumption, behavior, physical injury, mortality, and gross abnormalities. Liver weight and concentrations of PFOS in blood serum and liver were also assessed. Based on the average daily intake (ADI) of PFOS calculated over the 5-day exposure period, the LD50 for juvenile mallards was determined to be 150 mg PFOS/kg body weight (bw)/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 750 mg PFOS/kg bw calculated over a 5-day period. For juvenile quail, the LD50 based on the ADI was 61 mg PFOS/kg bw/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 305 mg PFOS/kg bw. Reductions in weight gain and body weight were observed in quail from the 141 mg PFOS/kg treatment, but these measures returned to control levels by Day 22. The no-mortality dietary treatments were 70.3 and 141 mg PFOS/kg feed for quail and mallards, respectively. Both mallards and quail accumulated PFOS in blood serum and liver in a dose-dependent manner. The half-lives of PFOS in mallard blood serum and liver were estimated to be 6.86 and 17.5 days, respectively. In quail, the half-life of PFOS in liver was estimated to be 12.8 days, while the half-life of PFOS in quail blood serum could not be estimated. Concentrations of PFOS in juvenile mallard and quail liver associated with mortality are at least 50-fold greater than the single maximum PFOS concentration that has been measured in livers of avian wildlife.

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