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Mycopathologia. 2006 Jan;161(1):43-52.

Natural occurrence of 16 fusarium toxins in grains and feedstuffs of plant origin from Germany.

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  • 1Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, Emil-Wolff-Str. 10, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.


A total of 220 samples comprising cereals, cereal byproducts, corn plants and corn silage as well as non-grain based feedstuffs was randomly collected during 2000 and 2001 from sources located in Germany and analysed for 16 Fusarium toxins. The trichothecenes scirpentriol (SCIRP), 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin (HT-2, T-2), neosolaniol (NEO), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivealenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FUS-X) were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zearalenone (ZEA) and alpha- and beta-zearalenol (alpha- and beta-ZOL) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV-detection. Detection limits ranged between 1 and 19 microg/kg. Out of 125 samples of a group consisting of wheat, oats, corn, corn byproducts, corn plants and corn silage only two wheat samples did not contain any of the toxins analysed. Based on 125 samples the incidences were at 2-11% for DAS, NEO, T-2 Triol, FUS-X, alpha- and beta-ZOL, at 20-22% for SCIRP, MAS, T-2 tetraol and 3-ADON, at 44-74% for HT-2, T-2, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEA, and at 94% for DON. Mean levels of positive samples were between 6 and 758 microg/kg. Out of 95 samples of a group consisting of hay, lupines, peas, soya meal, rapeseed meal and other oil-seed meals, 64 samples were toxin negative. DAS, T-2 triol, NEO and FUS-X were not detected in any sample. The incidences of DON and ZEA were at 14 and 23% respectively, those of the other toxins between 1-4%, mean levels of positive samples were between 5 and 95 microg/kg.

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