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Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;36(2):267-77.

Mechanism of pathogen-specific TLR4 activation in the mucosa: fimbriae, recognition receptors and adaptor protein selection.

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Glycobiology, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.


The mucosal host defence discriminates pathogens from commensals, and prevents infection while allowing the normal flora to persist. Paradoxically, Toll-like receptors (TLR) control the mucosal defence against pathogens, even though the TLR recognise conserved molecules like LPS, which are shared between pathogens and commensals. This study proposes a mechanism of pathogen-specific mucosal TLR4 activation, involving adhesive ligands and their host cell receptors. TLR4 signalling was activated in CD14-negative, LPS-unresponsive epithelial cells by P fimbriated, uropathogenic Escherichia coli but not by a mutant lacking fimbriae. Epithelial TLR4 signalling in vivo involved the glycosphingolipid receptors for P fimbriae and the adaptor proteins Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)/TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), but myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88)/TIR domain-containing adaptor protein were not required for the epithelial response. Substituting the P fimbriae with type 1 fimbriae changed TLR4 signalling from the TRIF to the MyD88 adaptor pathway. In addition, the adaptor proteins and the fimbrial type were found to influence bacterial clearance. Trif(-/-) and Tram(-/-) mice remained infected with P fimbriated E. coli but cleared the type 1 fimbriated strain, while Myd88(-/-) mice became carriers of both the P and the type 1 fimbriated bacteria. Thus, TLR4 may be engaged specifically by pathogens, when the proper cell surface receptors are engaged by virulence ligands.

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