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J Comp Neurol. 2006 Feb 20;494(6):903-43.

Connections of the lateral and medial divisions of the goldfish telencephalic pallium.

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Neurobiology Unit, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0201, USA.


Biotinylated dextran amine and fluorescent carbocyanine dye (DiI) were used to examine connections of the lateral (Dl) and medial (Dm) divisions of the goldfish pallium. Besides numerous intrinsic telencephalic connections to Dl and Dm, major ascending projections to these pallial divisions arise in the preglomerular complex of the posterior tuberculum, rather than in the dorsal thalamus. The rostral subnucleus of the lateral preglomerular nucleus receives auditory input via the medial pretoral nucleus, lateral line input via the ventrolateral toral nucleus, and visual input via the optic tectum, and it projects to both Dl and Dm. The anterior preglomerular nucleus and caudal subnucleus of the lateral preglomerular nucleus receive auditory input via the central toral nucleus and project to Dm. This pallial division also receives chemosensory information via the medial preglomerular nucleus. The central posterior (CP) nucleus, which receives both auditory and visual inputs, also projects to Dm and is the only dorsal thalamic nucleus projecting to the pallium. Thus, both Dl and Dm clearly receive multisensory inputs. Major projections of CP and projections of all other dorsal thalamic nuclei are to the subpallium, however. Descending projections of Dl are primarily to the preoptic area and the caudal hypothalamus, whereas descending projections of Dm are more extensive and particularly heavy to the anterior tuber and nucleus diffusus of the hypothalamus. The topography and connections of Dl are remarkably similar to those of the hippocampus of tetrapods, whereas the topography and connections of Dm are similar to those of the amygdala.

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