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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 May;100(5):1719-26. Epub 2005 Dec 29.

Effects of chronic cold exposure on the endothelin system.

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1
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0274, USA.

Abstract

Cold temperatures have adverse effects on the human cardiovascular system. Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor. We hypothesized that cold exposure increases ET-1 production and upregulates ET type A (ETA) receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cold exposure on regulation of the ET system. Four groups of rats (6-7 rats/group) were used: three groups were exposed to moderate cold (6.7 +/- 2 degrees C) for 1, 3, and 5 wk, respectively, and the remaining group was maintained at room temperature (25 degrees C) and served as control. Cold exposure significantly increased ET-1 levels in the heart, mesenteric arteries, renal cortex, and renal medulla. Cold exposure increased ETA receptor protein expression in the heart and renal cortex. ET type B (ETB) receptor expression, however, was decreased significantly in the heart and renal medulla of cold-exposed rats. Cold exposure significantly increased the ratio of ETA to ETB receptors in the heart. An additional four groups of rats (3 rats/group) were used to localize changes in ETA and ETB receptors at 1, 3, and 5 wk of cold exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an increase in ETA, but a decrease in ETB, receptor immunoreactivity in cardiomyocytes of cold-exposed rats. Increased ETA receptor immunoreactivity was also found in vascular smooth muscle cells of cold-exposed rats. Cold exposure increased ETA receptor immunoreactivity in tubule epithelial cells in the renal cortex but decreased ETB receptor immunoreactivity in tubule epithelial cells in the renal medulla. Therefore, cold exposure increased ET-1 production, upregulated ETA receptors, and downregulated ETB receptors.

PMID:
16384835
DOI:
10.1152/japplphysiol.01407.2005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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