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Phys Rev Lett. 2005 Oct 28;95(18):180501. Epub 2005 Oct 26.

Fault-tolerant quantum dynamical decoupling.

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Physics Department, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A7.


Dynamical decoupling pulse sequences have been used to extend coherence times in quantum systems ever since the discovery of the spin-echo effect. Here we introduce a method of recursively concatenated dynamical decoupling pulses, designed to overcome both decoherence and operational errors. This is important for coherent control of quantum systems such as quantum computers. For bounded-strength, non-Markovian environments, such as for the spin-bath that arises in electron- and nuclear-spin based solid-state quantum computer proposals, we show that it is strictly advantageous to use concatenated pulses, as opposed to standard periodic dynamical decoupling pulse sequences. Namely, the concatenated scheme is both fault tolerant and superpolynomially more efficient, at equal cost. We derive a condition on the pulse noise level below which concatenation is guaranteed to reduce decoherence.

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