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Gene. 2006 Mar 15;369:90-9. Epub 2005 Dec 27.

Identification of novel PPARgamma target genes in primary human adipocytes.

Author information

1
Keck Graduate Institute, 535 Watson Dr., Claremont, CA 91711, USA. jperera@kgi.edu

Abstract

Adipogenesis is the process by which undifferentiated precursor cells differentiate into fat laden adipocytes. The nuclear proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a central role in adipocyte differentiation. The goals of this study were to identify novel PPARgamma responsive genes and to determine their role in regulating human adipocyte differentiation. Affymetrix profiling of gene expression in human adipocytes identified about 1000 genes that were significantly up-regulated subsequent to induction of differentiation. PPARgamma expression was reduced prior to induction of differentiation using a novel, chemically modified antisense oligonucleotide. Affymetrix microarray profiling of these cells identified 278 statistically significantly down-regulated genes. Eight genes were found to contain previously documented PPARgamma recognition element (PPRE) in their upstream nucleotide (promoter) sequence. Four of these genes are novel and have not previously been characterized. Chromatin immuno-precipitation experiments confirmed the binding of PPARgamma to the PPRE of three of these genes. The ortholog of one of these genes, hypothetical protein FLJ 20920, has previously been reported to be involved in the control of body fat composition in Caenorhabditis elegans. Inhibition of expression of this protein was found to also inhibit differentiation of human adipocytes. MAST/MEME algorithm analysis was used to identify novel commonly occurring sequence motifs in the 5' upstream region of transcripts for subset of down-regulated genes, which were grouped according to their sequence similarities. A number of clusters were identified and the largest cluster contained similar motifs from 26 genes with the literature supporting 7 of the 26 genes as being involved in fatty acid metabolism or PPARgamma interaction.

PMID:
16380219
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2005.10.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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