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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Dec;69(12):2263-76.

Two-component phosphorelay signal transduction systems in plants: from hormone responses to circadian rhythms.

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Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Japan.


One of the most fundamental and widespread mechanisms of signal perception/transduction in prokaryotes is generally referred to as the "two-component regulatory system (TCS)." The concept of TCS has already been introduced a decade ago from extensive studies on the model prokaryotic bacterium Escherichia coli. Results of recent studies on the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana have led us to learn a new scenario as to the versatility of TCS in eukaryotic species. In the plant, on the one hand, TCS are crucially involved in the signal transduction mechanism underlying the regulation of sophisticated plant development in response to hormones (e.g., cytokinin and ethylene). On the other hand, a unique TCS variant is essentially integrated into the plant clock function that generates circadian rhythms, and also tells us the time and season on this regularly spinning and revolving world. In this review, recent progress with regard to studies on TCS in higher plants will be discussed, focusing particularly on the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

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