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Dent Mater. 2006 Dec;22(12):1143-9. Epub 2006 Jan 10.

Network structure of Bis-GMA- and UDMA-based resin systems.

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American Dental Association Foundation, Paffenbarger Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8546, USA.



The commonly used dental base monomers 2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenylene]propane (Bis-GMA) and 1,6-bis(methacryloxy-2-ethoxycarbonylamino)-2,4,4-trimethylhexane (UDMA) require the use of a diluent monomer, such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The aim of this study was to measure double bond conversion of UDMA/TEGDMA and Bis-GMA/TEGDMA polymeric systems, determine the leachable portion, and analyze network formation by evaluating crosslinking and pendant double bonds.


UDMA or Bis-GMA was combined with TEGDMA in systematic increments and irradiated to form light cured polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the near-infrared region was used to measure double bond conversion. The leachable sol fraction was analyzed by 1H NMR. Resin composites were formulated. Flexural strength was measured by three-point bending and volumetric shrinkage was determined with a mercury dilatometer.


The amount of base monomer greatly influenced double bond conversion, sol fraction, and crosslinking. Increasing base monomer concentration decreased double bond conversion, increased the leachable fraction, and decreased crosslinking and network formation. At mole fractions higher than 0.125, the UDMA polymers had significantly higher conversion than the Bis-GMA polymers. Bis-GMA polymers had higher leachable amounts of unreacted monomer, while UDMA mixtures had more crosslinking than the Bis-GMA mixtures. In regards to the physical properties of resin composites, increasing the base monomer improved flexural strength and decreased volumetric shrinkage.


This systematic study for the evaluation of conversion, leachability, crosslinking, and network structure along with physical properties, like volumetric shrinkage and flexural strength, are required for the optimization of competing desirable properties for the development of durable materials.

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