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Mol Endocrinol. 2006 May;20(5):1048-60. Epub 2005 Dec 22.

The corepressors silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and nuclear receptor corepressor are involved in agonist- and antagonist-regulated transcription by androgen receptor.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.


We have investigated the role of corepressors SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor) and N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) in transcriptional regulation by androgen receptor (AR) in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Using specific small interference RNAs to knock down SMRT and/or N-CoR in LNCaP cells, we found that SMRT and N-CoR not only mediate antagonist-dependent inhibition of AR activation but also have a widespread role in suppressing agonist-dependent activation of several AR target genes we have tested, including PSA (prostate-specific antigen), TSC22 (TSC22 domain family member 1), NKX3-1 (NK3 transcription factor locus 1), and B2M(beta-2-microglobulin). By sequencing analysis followed by analysis of physical association by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we mapped the putative androgen response elements in the NKX3-1 and B2M. Consistent with a role in both antagonist- and agonist-regulated transcription by AR, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that both SMRT and N-CoR were recruited by AR to these genes in the presence of either flutamide or R1881. Knocking down SMRT and N-CoR enhanced the recruitment of the coactivators steroid receptor coactivator 1 and p300 by agonist-bound AR and led to increased hyperacetylation of histone H3 and H4, suggesting that the corepressors actively compete with coactivators for binding to agonist-bound AR. Taken together, our data indicate that SMRT and N-CoR corepressors are involved in transcriptional regulation by both agonist- and antagonist-bound AR and regulate the magnitude of hormone response, at least in part, by competing with coactivators.

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