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Biofouling. 2005;21(3-4):217-25.

Survival, growth, settlement and metamorphosis of refrigerated larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and their use in settlement and antifouling bioassays.

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Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.


Straight-hinge veliger and pediveliger larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were refrigerated for varying periods for use in bioassays. Straight-hinge veliger larvae grew to the umbo-veliger stage after 2 months in the refrigerator, but no pediveligers were observed during the 3-month refrigeration period. The average survival rate of larvae in the refrigerator was 79% after 1 month, but gradually decreased with the refrigeration period, and was as low as 22% after 3 months. All refrigerated larvae grew to the pediveliger stage in the incubator at 17 degrees C at the same rate as that of the control larvae that were not refrigerated. Settlement and metamorphosis of pediveligers from both refrigerated and control groups were facilitated by microbial film and epinephrine and inhibited by phentolamine. Thus, refrigeration can be used as an effective method of storing larvae of M. galloprovincialis for use in assays to assess candidate settlement inducers and antifouling substances.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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