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Urol Clin North Am. 1992 Aug;19(3):541-8.

Immunology of the bladder.

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Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.


Immunobiology techniques that once were the domain of research are increasingly being applied in the clinic. Transitional epithelium of the bladder undergoes some recognized immunologic changes as it becomes malignant, and their detection may have prognostic value. Examples of such changes are deletion of the ABO(H) blood group antigens, inappropriate expression of Lewis antigens, loss of beta-2 microglobulin and the MHC class 1 heavy chain, and alterations in the production of cellular adhesion molecules and integrins. Other possibly useful markers are ras oncogene products, Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and perhaps antigens unique to transitional-cell carcinoma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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