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Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006 Mar;148(3):235-53; discussion 253. Epub 2005 Dec 19.

Intra-operative 3D ultrasound in neurosurgery.

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Department of Neurosurgery, St. Olav University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.


In recent years there has been a considerable improvement in the quality of ultrasound (US) imaging. The integration of 3D US with neuronavigation technology has created an efficient and inexpensive tool for intra-operative imaging in neurosurgery. In this review we present the technological background and an overview of the wide range of different applications. The technology has so far mostly been applied to improve surgery of tumours in brain tissue, but it has also been found to be useful in other procedures such as operations for cavernous haemangiomas, skull base tumours, syringomyelia, medulla tumours, aneurysms, AVMs and endoscopy guidance.

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