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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Dec 20;46(12):2168-82.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2--issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions.

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Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Encouraged by the clinical success of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the implantation rate has increased exponentially, although several limitations and unresolved issues of CRT have been identified. This review concerns issues that are encountered during implantation of CRT devices, including the role of electroanatomical mapping, whether CRT implantation should be accompanied by simultaneous atrioventricular nodal ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation, procedural complications, and when to consider surgical left ventricular lead positioning. Furthermore, (echocardiographic) CRT optimization and assessment of CRT benefits after implantation are highlighted. Also, controversial issues such as the potential value of CRT in patients with mild heart failure or narrow QRS complex are addressed. Finally, open questions concerning when to combine CRT with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and the cost-effectiveness of CRT are discussed.

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