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Obes Res. 1994 Nov;2(6):541-8.

Energy intake and physical activity in Pima Indians: comparison with energy expenditure measured by doubly-labeled water.

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  • 1Department of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA.


To test the validity of survey techniques for measuring diet and activity patterns of Pima Indians, sequential 24-hour recalls, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and an activity questionnaire were compared to free-living energy expenditure. Total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water was 13.27 +/- 2.95 MJ/d for the 12 males (mean +/- SD: 35 +/- 14 yr; 97 +/- 35 kg; 32 +/- 9% body fat) and 11.67 +/- 1.85 MJ/d for the 9 females (31 +/- 13 yr; 106 +/- 32 kg; 49 +/- 6% body fat). Energy intake assessed by 24-hour recall was 13.59 +/- 7.81 MJ/d for men and 9.29 +/- 2.77 MJ/d for women, compared to 12.84 + 2.85 and 9.40 + 2.61 MJ/d for men and women, respectively, by FFQ. Both dietary methods indicated significant underreporting by women when compared to TEE. Energy intake assessed by FFQ was significantly correlated with TEE (r=0.48, p=0.03). This was true with 24-hour recall energy intake only when data from two extremely large alcohol consumers were eliminated (r=0.64, p=0.03, N=19). Although a low level of activity was apparent, the activity questionnaire produced significant correlations with measurements of energy expenditure and therefore represents an important tool for examining the relationship between physical activity and diseases.

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