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Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 15;42 Suppl 2:S82-9.

The relationship between antimicrobial resistance and patient outcomes: mortality, length of hospital stay, and health care costs.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.


There is an association between the development of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, and gram-negative bacilli and increases in mortality, morbidity, length of hospitalization, and cost of health care. For many patients, inadequate or delayed therapy and severe underlying disease are primarily responsible for the adverse outcomes of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Patients with infections due to antimicrobial-resistant organisms have higher costs (approximately 6,000-30,000 dollars) than do patients with infections due to antimicrobial-susceptible organisms; the difference in cost is even greater when patients infected with antimicrobial-resistant organisms are compared with patients without infection. Strategies to prevent nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms are essential.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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