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Nature. 2005 Dec 15;438(7070):960-6.

Retinal angiogenesis in development and disease.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, A-157, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA.


The retina has long been regarded as 'an approachable part of the brain' for investigating neurosensory processes. Cell biologists are now capitalizing on the accessibility of the retina to investigate important aspects of developmental angiogenesis, including how it relates to neuronal and glial development, morphogenesis, oxygen sensing and progenitor cells. Pathological angiogenesis also occurs in the retina and is a major feature of leading blinding diseases, particularly diabetic retinopathy. The retina and its clinical disorders have a pivotal role in angiogenesis research and provide model systems in which to investigate neurovascular relationships and angiogenic diseases.

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