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Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Jul;53(7):1418-24.

Iron-Dependent Production of Hydroxamate by Sodium-Dependent Azotobacter chroococcum.

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Department of Microbiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9.


The sodium-dependent strain 184 of Azotobacter chroococcum was unable to grow significantly in iron-limited medium, but did produce iron-repressible outer membrane proteins. Siderophores were not produced under these conditions. Citric acid was excreted, but not in response to iron limitation. This strain, however, was able to grow in insoluble mineral iron sources, and under these conditions the cells produced a hydroxamate. Growth on minerals and hydroxamate production was dependent on a low level of freely exchangeable iron. Optimal hydroxamate production was observed with 0.75 muM ferric citrate, and hydroxamate production was repressed by >5 muM iron. Despite this iron requirement, hyroxamate was only formed during internal iron limitation of the cells. Iron-containing cells were able to grow in iron-limited medium but only produced hydroxamate when their iron-per-cellular-protein content was low. These results, the spectral changes observed upon Fe addition, and iron-uptake coincident with hydroxamate production suggested that the hydroxamate was a siderophore.


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