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Cancer Lett. 2006 Oct 8;242(1):60-7. Epub 2005 Dec 7.

GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and interaction with tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposure in esophageal cancer patients from North India.

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Department of Medical Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareily Road, Lucknow-226014, India.


Glutathione S-transferases(GSTs) are detoxification enzymes that provide critical defense against carcinogens. Our hypothesis was that altered frequencies of GST genotypes and environmental exposures might be associated with increased susceptibility for the development of esophageal cancer. A total of 100 esophageal cancer patients and 137 age and gender matched healthy controls were analyzed for GST polymorphisms. Frequencies of GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null and GSTP1 genotypes did not differ between patients and controls. However, a two-fold risk was observed for GSTM1 null genotype in adenocarcinoma (OR(odds ratio) 2.1; 95% CI(confidence intervals)=0.53-8.6). Further, we used a case only design to study gene-environment interactions in esophageal cancer. In patients with smoking habits, GSTM1 null and GSTP1 ile/ile genotype were at higher risk for esophageal cancer (OR 1.5; 95% CI=0.50-4.4 and OR 1.3; 95% CI=0.40-3.5), respectively. A moderate risk for cancer was observed from alcohol usage along with GSTM1 null(OR 1.3; 95% CI=0.50-3.6) and GSTP1 val/val genotypes(OR 1.2; 95% CI=0.20-5.7). Interaction of GST genotypes with occupational exposure did not affect risk for esophageal cancer. These findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 are not associated with higher risk of esophageal cancer. However, interaction of smoking or alcohol with GSTM1 null or GSTP1 ile/ile moderately increases the risk for esophageal cancer in North Indian population.

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