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J Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Nov 30;38(6):633-8.

Prostaglandin E synthase, a terminal enzyme for prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis.

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Department of Health Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.


Biosynthesis of prostanoids is regulated by three sequential enzymatic steps, namely phospholipase A2 enzymes, cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, and various lineagespecific terminal prostanoid synthases. Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), which isomerizes COX-derived PGH2 specifically to PGE2, occurs in multiple forms with distinct enzymatic properties, expressions, localizations and functions. Two of them are membrane-bound enzymes and have been designated as mPGES-1 and mPGES-2. mPGES-1 is a perinuclear protein that is markedly induced by proinflammatory stimuli, is down-regulated by antiinflammatory glucocorticoids, and is functionally coupled with COX-2 in marked preference to COX-1. Recent gene targeting studies of mPGES-1 have revealed that this enzyme represents a novel target for anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs. mPGES-2 is synthesized as a Golgi membrane-associated protein, and the proteolytic removal of the N-terminal hydrophobic domain leads to the formation of a mature cytosolic enzyme. This enzyme is rather constitutively expressed in various cells and tissues and is functionally coupled with both COX-1 and COX-2. Cytosolic PGES (cPGES) is constitutively expressed in a wide variety of cells and is functionally linked to COX-1 to promote immediate PGE2 production. This review highlights the latest understanding of the expression, regulation and functions of these three PGES enzymes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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