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Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;82(6):1178-84.

Plasma fatty acid composition is associated with the metabolic syndrome and low-grade inflammation in overweight adolescents.

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1
EA 1801, Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Together with adiposity, plasma fatty acid (FA) composition can modulate the development of the metabolic syndrome (MS).

OBJECTIVE:

Our aim was to investigate the relations of FA composition in plasma phospholipids and cholesterol esters (CEs) with weight status, MS, and inflammation in adolescents.

DESIGN:

Plasma FA composition was measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 120 (60 normal-weight and 60 overweight) 12-y-old adolescents. We also measured the presence of MS, insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment, and interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein concentrations in the adolescents.

RESULTS:

MS was present in 25% of the overweight adolescents but in none of the normal-weight adolescents. Compared with overweight adolescents, normal-weight adolescents had lower saturated FAs (SFAs) in both phospholipids (P < 0.001) and CEs (P < 0.01) and higher docosahexaenoic acid in phospholipids (P < 0.001). In overweight subjects, FA composition was associated with MS features independent of body fat. The odds ratios of MS for a 0.1 increase in the ratio of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) to SFAs (PUFA:SFA) were 0.91 in phospholipids (P = 0.03) and 0.90 in CEs (P = 0.06). In phospholipids, PUFA:SFA and linoleic acid were associated positively with HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01 for both). PUFA:SFA in phospholipids and CEs were associated inversely with interleukin 6 (P < 0.05 for both). Eicosapentaenoic acid in phospholipids (P = 0.06) and CEs (P < 0.05) and linolenic acid in CEs (P < 0.05) were inversely related to C-reactive protein. These relations remained significant after adjustment for the waist-to-hip ratio. No significant relation between FA composition and the homeostasis model assessment was observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Plasma FA composition is associated with weight status in healthy adolescents. High intake of long-chain PUFAs, especially n-3 PUFAs, may protect obese subjects against MS and low-grade inflammation as early as adolescence.

PMID:
16332649
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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