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Biochemistry. 2005 Dec 13;44(49):16108-20.

Lys300 plays a major role in the catalytic mechanism of maize polyamine oxidase.

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Department of Biology, University Roma Tre, Viale G. Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy.


Maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent enzyme that catalyses the oxidation of spermine and spermidine at the secondary amino groups. The structure of MPAO indicates a 30-A long U-shaped tunnel that forms the catalytic site, with residues Glu62 and Glu170 located close to the enzyme-bound FAD and residue Tyr298 in close proximity to Lys300, which in turn is hydrogen-bonded to the flavin N(5) atom via a water molecule (HOH309). To provide insight into the role of these residues in the catalytic mechanism of FAD reduction, we have performed steady-state and stopped-flow studies with wild-type, Glu62Gln, Glu170Gln, Tyr298Phe, and Lys300Met MPAO enzymes. We show that the steady-state enzyme activity is governed by an ionisable group with a macroscopic pK(a) of approximately 5.8. Kinetic analysis of the Glu62Gln, Glu170Gln, and Tyr298Phe MPAO enzymes have indicated (i) only small perturbations in catalytic activity as a result of mutation and (ii) steady-state pH profiles essentially unaltered when compared to the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that these residues do not play a critical role in the reaction mechanism. These kinetic observations are consistent with computational calculations that suggest that Glu62 and Glu170 are protonated over the pH range accessible to kinetic studies. Substitution of Lys300 with Met in MPAO resulted in a 1400-fold decrease in the rate of flavin reduction and a 160-fold decrease in the equilibrium dissociation constant for the Lys300Met-spermidine complex, consistent with a major role for this residue in the mechanism of substrate oxidation. A sizable solvent isotope effect (SIE = 5) accompanies FAD reduction in the wild-type enzyme and steady-state turnover (SIE = 2.3) of MPAO, consistent with the reductive half-reaction of MPAO making a major contribution to rate limitation in steady-state turnover. Studies using the enzyme-monitored turnover method indicate that oxidized FAD is the prominent form during steady-state turnover, consistent with the reductive half-reaction being rate-limiting. Our studies indicate the importance of Lys300 and probable importance of HOH309 to the mechanism of flavin reduction in MPAO. Possible roles for Lys300 and water in the mechanism of flavin reduction are discussed.

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