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Biochemistry. 2005 Dec 13;44(49):16026-34.

Peptidyl prolyl cis/trans-isomerases: comparative reactivities of cyclophilins, FK506-binding proteins, and parvulins with fluorinated oligopeptide and protein substrates.

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  • 1Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Enzymology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany.


Peptidyl prolyl cis/trans-isomerases catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of prolyl bonds in oligopeptides and various folding states of proteins. The proline residue in PPIase substrates at the P1' subsite, which follows the isomerizing peptide bond, appears to be the common recognition element for all subfamilies of this enzyme class. The molecular principles that govern substrate specificity at the P1' subsite were analyzed using 4-fluoroproline-containing tetrapeptide 4-nitroanilides and barstar Cys40Ala/Cys82Ala/Pro27Ala/Pro48-->4-fluoroproline quadruple variants. Generally, PPIase catalysis demonstrated stereospecificity for monofluoro substitutions at the 4-position of the pyrrolidine ring. However, the replacement of hydrogens with fluoro atoms did not impair productive interactions for the majority of PPIase-substrate complexes. Comparison of specificity constants for oligopeptide and protein substrates revealed striking differences in the 4-fluoroproline substituent effects between members of the PPIase families. Introduction of 4(R)-fluoroproline resulted in an oligopeptide substrate completely resistant to catalytic effects of FKBP-like PPIases. By contrast, the 4(R)-fluoroproline barstar variant demonstrated only slightly reduced or even better catalytic susceptibility when compared to the parent barstar Cys40Ala/Cys82Ala/Pro27Ala/Pro48 substrate. On the other hand, Suc-Ala-Ser-4(S)-FPro-Phe-pNA exhibits a discriminating specificity toward the prototypic parvulin, the Escherichia coli Par10. The E. coli trigger factor, in the extreme, catalyzes Cys40Ala/Cys82Ala/Pro27Ala/4-F(2)Pro48 with a more than 20-fold higher efficiency when compared to the proline-containing congener. These findings support the combined subsite concept for PPIase catalysis in which the positioning of a substrate in the active cleft must activate a still unknown number of remote subsites in the transition state of the reaction. The number of critical subsites was shown to vary between the PPIase families.

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