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Int J Cancer. 2006 May 1;118(9):2123-31.

Steroid hormones stimulate human prostate cancer progression and metastasis.

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1
Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Abstract

Tissue recombinants (TRs) composed of mouse urogenital mesenchyme (mUGM) plus an immortalized nontumorigenic human prostatic epithelial cell line (BPH-1) were grown under the kidney capsule of male athymic nude mice under different hormonal conditions. The objectives were to determine temporal plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17beta (E2) that elicit progression of nontumorigenic human prostatic epithelial cells in vivo. Second, to determine whether mUGM+BPH-1 TRs in [T+E2]-treated hosts could progress to metastases. Control mouse hosts received no exogenous hormonal support, whereas treated mice received Silastic implants containing T and E2 for 1-4 months. Plasma from hormonally treated mice contained significantly higher (p < 0.01) concentrations of T at 1 month (11.7 vs. 0.9 ng/ml). Plasma levels of E2 in steroid implanted mice were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at 2 months (104.5 vs. 25.6 ng/l) and 4 months (122.8 vs. 19.2 pg/ml). Wet weights of mUGM+BPH-1 TRs from [T+E2]-implanted mice were significantly larger (p < 0.001) than those from untreated hosts. Untreated mUGM+BPH-1 TRs contained a well organized differentiated epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle stroma similar to developing prostate. In [T+E2]-implanted mice, mUGM+BPH-1 TRs formed carcinomas that contained a fibrous connective tissue stroma permeating the tumor; smooth muscle when present was associated with vasculature. Renal lymph nodes collected from [T+E2]-treated mice, but not untreated mice, contained metastatic carcinoma cells. Moreover, metastases could be observed at distant sites including lung and liver. Epithelial cells isolated from untreated mUGM+BPH-1 TRs exhibited benign histology and formed small nontumorigenic grafts when subsequently transplanted into athymic nude mice. In contrast, epithelial cells isolated from mUGM+BPH-1 tumors of [T+E2]-treated hosts formed large tumors that grew independent of stromal and hormonal support and developed lymph node metastases. We conclude that [T+E2]-treatment promotes prostatic cancer progression in mUGM+BPH-1 TRs. Use of mUGM in this system will allow future studies to utilize the power of mouse genetics to identify paracrine factors involved in human prostatic carcinogenesis.

PMID:
16331600
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.21614
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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