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Adv Anat Pathol. 2005 Nov;12(6):324-31.

Pyothorax-associated lymphoma: a lymphoma developing in chronic inflammation.

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Department of Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.


Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of exclusively B-cell phenotype developing in the pleural cavity of patients after more than 20-year history of pyothorax resulting from an artificial pneumothorax for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or tuberculous pleuritis. The most common symptoms on admission are chest pain and fever. Serum neuron-specific enolase level suggesting a diagnosis of small cell lung cancer is occasionally elevated. Histologically PAL usually shows a diffuse proliferation of large cells of B-cell type (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [DLBL]). In PAL cells, representative B-cell markers other than CD20 are frequently negative with aberrant expression of T-cell markers such as CD2. A gene expression profile of PAL is distinct from nodal DLBL in its higher expression level of interferon-inducible genes. PAL is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with expression of EBV latent genes such as EBNA-2, LMP-1, together with EBNA-1. Taken together, PAL is a distinct entity both in its clinicopathologic presentation as well as its gene expression profile. Use of an artificial pneumothorax, EBV infection, and cytokines and reactive oxygen species produced in longstanding pyothorax might be important factors for PAL development.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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