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Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005;16(6):339-54.

CCR5 antagonists: host-targeted antivirals for the treatment of HIV infection.

Author information

1
Pfizer Global R&D, Kent, UK. mike.westby@pfizer.com

Abstract

The human chemokine receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, are potential host targets for exogenous, small-molecule antagonists for the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 strains can be categorised by co-receptor tropism - their ability to utilise CCR5 (CCR5-tropic), CXCR4 (CXCR4-tropic) or both (dual-tropic) as a co-receptor for entry into susceptible cells. CCR5 may be the more suitable co-receptor target for small-molecule antagonists because a natural deletion in the CCR5 gene preventing its expression on the cell surface is not associated with any obvious phenotype, but can confer resistance to infection by CCR5-tropic strains - the most frequently sexually-transmitted strains. The current leading CCR5 antagonists in clinical development include maraviroc (UK-427,857, Pfizer), aplaviroc (873140, GlaxoSmithKline) and vicriviroc (SCH-D, Schering-Plough), which have demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in HIV-infected patients. Pharmacodynamic data also suggest that these compounds have a long plasma half-life and/or prolonged CCR5 occupancy, which may explain the delay in viral rebound observed following compound withdrawal in short-term monotherapy studies. A switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 tropism occurs spontaneously in approximately 50% of HIV-infected patients and has been associated with, but is not required for, disease progression. The possibility of a co-receptor tropism switch occurring under selection pressure by CCR5 antagonists is discussed. The completion of ongoing Phase lib/Ill studies of maraviroc, aplaviroc and vicriviroc will provide further insight into co-receptor tropism, HIV pathogenesis and the suitability of CCR5 antagonists as a potent new class of antiyirals for the treatment of HIV infection.

PMID:
16329283
DOI:
10.1177/095632020501600601
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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