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Photosynth Res. 2004;79(3):305-18.

The glutaredoxin family in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.

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Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8618 CNRS, Bâtiment 630, 91405, Orsay Cedex, France,


Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small redox proteins of the thioredoxin (TRX) superfamily. Compared to TRXs, much less information on the GRX family is available, especially in photosynthetic organisms since GRXs have been mainly studied in E. coli, yeast and mammal cells. The analysis of the TRX family in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms revealed an unsuspected multiplicity of TRXs but it is not known if the same situation holds for GRXs. Despite the availability of genome sequences from different oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, the number of GRXs and the different groups present in these organisms are still undescribed. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the GRX families present in Arabidopsis, Chlamydomonas and Synechocystis which were found to contain 30, 6 and 3 GRX genes, respectively. The putative subcellular localization of each GRX and its relative expression level, based on EST data, have been investigated. This analysis reveals the presence of three major classes of GRXs, the CPYC type, the CGFS type and a previously undescribed type, called the CC type that appears specific to higher plants. These data are discussed in view of recent results suggesting a complex cross-regulation between the TRX and GRX systems.

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