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Surg Clin North Am. 2005 Dec;85(6):1243-57, xi.

Perioperative pain control: a strategy for management.

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1
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.

Abstract

A thorough understanding of the anatomy and neurophysiology of the pain response is necessary for the effective treatment of perioperative pain. This article describes the mechanisms that produce pain,including those related to inflammation. Other topics include the pharmacologies of nonopioid and opioid analgesics. Nonopioid analgesics can be separated into two categories: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as salicylates, and acetaminophen. Opioids include morphine, fentanyl, and meperidine. The pharmacology of local anesthesia is discussed. The six major adverse reactions to local anesthetics are cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, direct tissue toxicity, central nervous system toxicity, methemoglobinemia and allergic reactions. Methods for measuring pain are described.

PMID:
16326205
DOI:
10.1016/j.suc.2005.09.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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