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Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 22;272(1581):2593-9.

60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis.

Author information

1
Jodrell Laboratory Molecular Systematics Section Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3DS, UK. n.ronsted@kew.org

Abstract

Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization led to the parallel diversification of fig and pollinator lineages (co-divergence) has so far not been tested due to the lack of robust and comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for both partners. We produced and combined the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic trees to date with fossil data to generate independent age estimates for fig and pollinator lineages, using both non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood dating methods. Molecular dating of ten pairs of interacting lineages provides an unparalleled example of plant-insect co-divergence over a geological time frame spanning at least 60 million years.

PMID:
16321781
PMCID:
PMC1559977
DOI:
10.1098/rspb.2005.3249
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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